Urban areas population land use and health
Effects of urbanization essay
All of these factors result in both temporary and permanent migration to urban areas. Bigger urban areas do not always create more environmental problems. People of many classes and religions live and work together in cities, which creates better understanding and harmony and helps break down social and cultural barriers. With the advent of agriculture 8, years ago, we began to change the land. The heat island phenomenon is created because cities radiate heat back into the atmosphere at a rate 15 percent to 30 percent less than rural areas. Streamflow recharges groundwater which maintains thriving ecosystems and drinking water, and baseflow is the groundwater contribution to stream flow. Sometimes the wastes are collected and taken to legalised waste disposal sites but these are not always properly managed to protect water bodies and groundwater. References M. The density of urban populations makes it easier and less costly for the government and utilities to provide essential goods and services Brockerhoff, Rapid urban expansion in China has been linked to a number of environmental issues, such as farmland loss [ 14 , 15 , 16 ], soil sealing and pollution [ 17 ], air and water pollution [ 18 , 19 , 20 ], urban heat islands [ 21 , 22 ], and biodiversity loss [ 23 ]. These observations are supported by government statistics, which show that per capita disposable income of urban households increased by 12, yuan in — [ 12 ] and urban population in the cities increased by But even a decade later, urban populations had 60 percent more pork in their diets than rural populations. The health implications of these environmental problems include respiratory infections and other infectious and parasitic diseases.
Considering the remarkable differences in urbanization and income growth, we grouped the 81 coastal and capital cities into relatively developed cities RD cities and the rest of the prefectural cities into RP cities Figure 2. This subdivision of prefectural cities provided the basis for subsequent data analysis on: 1 the spatial distribution of environmental benefits among the prefectural cities in and ; 2 the change of environmental benefits between the RD and RP cities in —; and 3 the driving factors influencing the change of environmental benefits in — United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects: Los Angeles has dramatically reduced air pollution.
Thus, the central government has begun to pay close attention to searching for a win-win model for socio-economic development and environmental sustainability. Figure Trends in streamflow in Hawaii, Mark R. And by the UN estimates that there will be Consequently, death rates in urban areas historically were higher than in rural areas.
Causes of urbanization
The density of urban populations makes it easier and less costly for the government and utilities to provide essential goods and services Brockerhoff, This subdivision of prefectural cities provided the basis for subsequent data analysis on: 1 the spatial distribution of environmental benefits among the prefectural cities in and ; 2 the change of environmental benefits between the RD and RP cities in —; and 3 the driving factors influencing the change of environmental benefits in — Poor living conditions and the lack of opportunities for paid employment in rural areas are push factors. Montgomery et al. Thus, our working hypothesis in this study is that the urban environment could improve with rising income and urbanization. Following general trends of population increase in Hawaii, urban density is measured to track where this population is residing. Is it to create a beautiful environment, or a well-functioning settlement, or a fairer society? First we will look at the many positive impacts of urbanisation before going on to describe some of the challenges created by rapid unplanned urban growth. Search Land Use Impacts By , minimize the negative impacts of land use on the natural environment and people, while enhancing the livability of the built environment. Access to education, health, social services and cultural activities is more readily available to people in cities than in villages.
Schools, colleges and universities are established in cities to develop human resources. The increasing consumption of meat is a sign of growing affluence in Beijing; in India where many urban residents are vegetarians, greater prosperity is seen in higher consumption of milk.
Mitigating the effects of these impacts can conversely create more livable communities and generate a healthier, better quality of life.
Urban areas population land use and health
Rapid, unplanned and unsustainable patterns of urban development are making developing cities focal points for many emerging environment and health hazards4. The gathering of economic and human resources in one place stimulates innovation and development in business, science, technology and industry. Within urban areas, women who migrated from rural areas have more children than those born in urban areas. Although the central government has implemented rigorous control on urban land expansion to cope with growing land scarcity [ 2 , 3 ], the expansion has continued unabatedly with an increase of 2. And the increased consumption of energy is likely to have deleterious environmental effects. Some research suggests that indicators of health problems, such as rates of infant mortality, are higher in cities that are growing rapidly than in those where growth is slower. Solid waste management means the proper collection, transfer, recycling and disposal of all the solid material we throw away, including plastics, paper and cardboard, food wastes, electrical waste, etc. Thus, our working hypothesis in this study is that the urban environment could improve with rising income and urbanization. The limited literature on the topic has shown that urban land use at the city level can bring about environmental benefits, together with multiple other urban system services, to contribute to human well-being, especially in developing countries.
It is also likely to concentrate some environmental effects geographically.
based on 104 review