The way people behave socially, through racist or sexist practices and other forms of discrimination, tends to trickle down and affect the opportunities and wealth individuals can generate for themselves.
The Middle classes are those who rely mostly on wives' employment and depends on credits from the bank and medical coverage.
Racismfor example, is understood to be a phenomenon whereby access to rights and resources is unfairly distributed across racial lines. The natural communities that we analyze range from mushrooms, trees, intestinal bacteria, and algae to flies, rodents, and fish SI Appendix, section 1.
At the other end of the continuum, collectivists place little to no trust in "free market" economic systems, noting widespread lack of access among specific groups or classes of individuals to the costs of entry to the market.
They believe that social inequality prevents and hinders societal progress as those in power repress the powerless people to maintain the status quo.
Some scholars suggest that women's underrepresentation in political systems speaks the idea that "formal citizenship does not always imply full social membership". On the one hand, the elderly are less likely to be involved in the workforce: At the same time, old age may or may not put one at a disadvantage in accessing positions of prestige.
On the other hand, if they are a part of a society that provides them with the same opportunities, and one of them earns twice as much as the other, we would hardly be in a position to make a judgment about justice and injustice.
One view aligns with the functionalist theory, and the other aligns with conflict theory. Classic Chinese society in the Han and Tang dynastiesfor example, while highly organized into tight hierarchies of horizontal inequality with a distinct power elite also had many elements of free trade among its various regions and subcultures.
Free markets do not allow this to happen. Although the correspondence between the dominance in society and this famously diverse ecosystem may be a coincidence, it raises the questions of whether there might be generic intrinsic tendencies to such inequality, and what could be the unifying mechanisms behind it.
Those books present in a very absorbing way the popular understanding of the somehow unfair and huge differences between the elite the one percent and all the others the 99 percent.
Ascribed characteristics are those present at birth or assigned by others and over which an individual has little or no control.