An analysis of the modern feminist theory

Types of feminist theories

The term cyberfeminism, which explicitly fuses gender and information technology, arose in the late s and early s. In the late 20th century, this strain of feminist theory was extended to account for the globalization of capitalism and how its methods of production and of accumulating wealth center on the exploitation of women workers around the world. Christina Hoff-Sommers argues feminist misandry leads directly to misogyny by what she calls "establishment feminists" against the majority of women who love men in Who Stole Feminism: How Women Have Betrayed Women. In Franco's Spain, the right wing Catholic conservatives undid the work of feminists during the Republic. While there is no standard set of beliefs among Christian feminists, most agree that God does not discriminate on the basis of biologically-determined characteristics such as sex. Postcolonial feminists can be described as feminists who have reacted against both universalizing tendencies in Western feminist thought and a lack of attention to gender issues in mainstream postcolonial thought. Postcolonial feminists argue that cultures impacted by colonialism are often vastly different and should be treated as such. Postmodern feminist theories imply that no universal research agenda or application of technologies will be appropriate and that various women will have different reactions to technologies depending upon their own class, race, sexuality, country, and other factors. The resurgence of feminist activism in the late s was accompanied by an emerging literature of concerns for the earth and spirituality, and environmentalism. They offer the important insight that not all women experience oppression in the same way, and that the same forces that work to oppress women and girls also oppress people of color and other marginalized groups. After her arrest for illegally voting, Susan B.

Ecofeminism connects the exploitation and domination of women with that of the environment. Heterosexual relationships The increased entry of women into the workplace beginning in the twentieth century has affected gender roles and the division of labor within households.

Angela McRobbie argues that adding the prefix post to feminism undermines the strides that feminism has made in achieving equality for everyone, including women.

feminist theory pdf

Described as an international bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September Psychology[ edit ] Feminist psychology is a form of psychology centered on societal structures and gender.

Its development is also associated with concepts such as black feminism, womanism, "Africana womanism", "motherism", "Stiwanism", "negofeminism", chicana feminism, and "femalism". However, the emerging area of cyberfeminism can benefit from different types of feminism in order to build cyberfeminist theories.

This aspect observes their place and how they are considered in the literary history.

Feminist theory articles

Ecofeminists argue that those people in power are able to take advantage of them distinctly because they are seen as passive and rather helpless. Second-wave feminists saw women's cultural and political inequalities as inextricably linked and encouraged women to understand aspects of their personal lives as deeply politicized and as reflecting sexist power structures. Liberal feminism seeks no special privileges for women and simply demand that everyone receive equal consideration without discrimination on the basis of sex. She notes how feminists and sociologists have become suspect of evolutionary psychology, particularly inasmuch as sociobiology is subjected to complexity in order to strengthen sexual difference as immutable through pre-existing cultural value judgments about human nature and natural selection. Sex-positive movement Sex-positive feminism is a movement that was formed in order to address issues of women's sexual pleasure, freedom of expression, sex work, and inclusive gender identities. Although rooted in Islam, the movement's pioneers have also utilized secular and Western feminist discourses and recognize the role of Islamic feminism as part of an integrated global feminist movement. Psychoanalytic feminists attempt to explain power relations between men and women by reformulating Freud's theories of human emotions, childhood development, and the workings of the subconscious and unconscious. In the twenty-first century new reactions to feminist ideologies have emerged including a generation of male scholars involved in gender studies, and also men's rights activists who promote male equality including equal treatment in family, divorce and anti-discrimination law. Occasionally, variations occur during the sex-determining process, resulting in intersex conditions. Third wave Third-wave feminism began in the early s, arising as a response to perceived failures of the second wave and also as a response to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by the second wave. Humans today, typically doctors decide how small a penis has to be, or how unusual a combination of parts has to be, before it counts as intersex". Psychoanalytical feminists believe that gender inequality comes from early childhood experiences, which lead men to believe themselves to be masculine , and women to believe themselves feminine. Other sex-positive feminists became involved not in opposition to other feminists, but in direct response to what they saw as patriarchal control of sexuality. Their efforts were met with mixed results. Although the terms "feminism" and "feminist" did not gain widespread use until the s, they were already being used in the public parlance much earlier; for instance, Katherine Hepburn speaks of the "feminist movement" in the film Woman of the Year.

Maxine Baca Zinn, a Chicana feminist and Dr. Lindlof and Bryan C.

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Feminist Theory: Definition and Discussion